1. Leadership and Management

Leadership is about people

What is management?

Management is the process of achieving organizational goals through engaging in the 4 major fuctions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling.

  • Planning: setting goals and deciding best way to achieve them.
  • Organising: allocating and arranging resources.
  • Leading: influencing others to work towards goals.
  • Controlling: regulating activities to reach goals.

What is leadership?

Influence others to achieve goals.

People accept a leader’s influence because the leader has power.

What kind of power?

  • Legitimate power
  • Reward power
  • Expert power
  • Information power

Managers vs Leaders

Leadership and managers are not the same thing





An original

A copy

Develops new things

Maintains existing things

People focus

System and structure focus

Inspires trust


Long term

Short term

Ask what and why

Ask when and how

Eyes on the horizon

Eyes on the bottom line

Do the right thing

Do the things right

A project manager has many roles and responsibilities, managing projects is managing complexity:

  • Formulate plans and objectives
  • Monitor results
  • Take corrective action
  • Expedite activities
  • Solve technical problems
  • Serve as a peacemaker
  • Make tradeoffs among time, costs and project scope
  • Recognize the need to change to keep the project on track
  • Initiate change
  • Provide direction and motivation
  • Innovate and adapt as necessary
  • Integrate assigned resources


2. Managing project stakeholders

What are stakeholders?

You cannot do it all and get it all alone; a project usually involves a vast web of relationships.

Hands-on work is not the same as leading.

More pressure and more involvement will reduce your effectiveness as a leader.

What is important to you likely isn’t as important to someone else.
Remember, project management is tough, exciting, and rewarding so persevere.

Stakeholder’s environment:

  • Input: Sponsor and initiative owners
  • Constraints: Regulators and risk manager
  • Requirements: Product manager and customer service manager     
  • Projects:
  • Outcomes: Customer service operator, sales people and customer

project team: manages and completes the project work, most of the participants want to do a good job, but they are also concerned with other obligations and how their involvement will contribute to their personal goals and aspirations.

Project managers: complete with each other for resources and support top management, at the same time, they have to share the resources and exchange information.

Functional managers: depending on how the project is organised, and can play minor or major role to the project success, for example providing technical input, etc.

Top management: approve funding of the project and establishes the priorities within the organization. They define success, rewards for the successful completing of the project. Significant adjustments in scope, time and cost.

Project sponsors: champion of the project and using their influence to gain approval of the project. Their reputation is tied to the success of the project.

Customers: define the scope of the project, and ultimate project success rests in their satisfaction. Project managers need to be responsive to changing customer needs and requirements and to meeting their expectations.

Administrative groups: such as HR, IS(information systems), purchasing agent, maintenance, etc. They provide valuable support service.

Government agencies: place constrains on project work, permits need to be secured.

Contractors: do actual work with team members.

3. Influence as exchange

4. Commonly traded organizational currencies????

5. Social network building

Mapping dependencies for social networks.

Project team perspective:

  • Whose cooperation will be needed?
  • Whose agreement or approvals will we needed?
  • Whose opposition would keep us from accomplishing the project?

Stakeholders’ perspective:??

  • What differences exist between the team and those on whom the team will depend?
  • How do the stakeholders view the project?
  • What is the status of our relationship with the stakeholders?
  • What sources of influence does the team have relative to the stakeholders?

Characteristics of effective project managers:

  • Initiate contact with key players
  • Anticipate potential problems
  • Provide encouragement
  • Reinforce the objectives and vision of the project
  • Resolve conflict and prevent stalemates

MBWA: management by walking around

managing upward relations

Project success=Top management support

  • appropriate budgets
  • responsiveness to unexpected needs
  • a clear signal to the organization of the importance of cooperation

Motivating the project team

  • Influence top management to favor team by withdrawing unreasonable demands.
  • provide additional resources
  • recognize the activities of team members

Leading by example

6 aspects of leading by example:

  • Priority
  • Urgency
  • problem solving
  • Standards of performance
  • Ethics
  • Cooperation

6. Ethics and project management

Ethical dilemmas–Situations where it is difficult to determine whether conduct is right or wrong.

7. Contradictions of project management


Maintain stability





Team loyalty

Organisational loyalty

8. Qualities of an effective project manager

  • System thinker
  • Personal integrity
  • Proactive
  • High tolerance for stress
  • General business perspective
  • Good communicator
  • Effective time management
  • Skillful political
  • Optimist

9. Suggestion for PM

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